Depression , Stress and Anxiety (Mental Health)

The topics discussed below are mental health disorders and disorders that affect mood, stress, and anxiety. All of these are circumstances in which the sense of reality isn’t lost and the patient is aware of the signs and their effects. These conditions were previously known as neurotic disorders or neurosis, in contrast to psychosis or psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia in which insight and connection to reality are lost. The term “psychotic disorder” is now being dropped because neurotic disorders often exhibit psychosis-like symptoms. Furthermore, certain disorders known as dissociative disorders are found within the spectrum of psychosis and neurosis.

Someone may be suffering from several ailments simultaneously and it’s possible that one of them caused or aggravated the other. For instance, depression and anxiety are often viewed together and a person suffering from PTSD or an eating disorder could be diagnosed with depression. Depression can lead to a binge-eating disorder, or anxiety could develop into social anxiety, OCD, or somatic disorder. It is also crucial to recognize past stresses trauma, events in family life, occupational and socio-cultural aspects, and their significant role to influence the creation of these disorders as well as genetic, biological, or the predisposition to temperament.

Substance abuse (alcohol or narcotic drugs) can be the reason behind the mental health issue, but it could be a contributing factor and even be the result of a specific mental health problem as a means of coping. Substance abuse should be identified and treated after a thorough background check is completed when taking care of any mental health issue. Substance abuse is now identified as a distinct category within the definition of mental illnesses.



Everyone experiences periods of sadness and moods of depression due to certain factors, events, or situations. If these moods persist or are repeated over a long period it is believed to be depression or has depression.

To be considered a major depression disorder (clinical depression), at least one of the following must be observed for a minimum of two weeks:

  • Feeling depressed, sad or empty, angry or hopeless for the bulk of the day
  • Inattention loss in daily routine activities or in those previous interests

As well as the above, a few of the indicators below are in place:

  • Sleep patterns that are disturbed (too much or not enough sleepiness, trouble sleeping or waking up too early)
  • Change in appetite, or weight gain or loss
  • A lack of concentration or diminished work performance
  • Easy fatigue and low energy
  • Acute physical agitation or a complete reduction in physical activity.
  • Low self-esteem, guilt blame, insanity
  • Hopelessness, despair or thoughts of dying, and even suicide

If the symptoms mentioned above of depression are present over at least 2 years or longer, and the period of symptom-free does not exceed longer than two months at a time, it’s called persistent depression (dysthymia).

Major Depression episodes are sometimes further classified as belonging to particular subtypes (specifiers) in relation to aspects such as:

  • Melancholic: Negative emotions, such as excessive guilt early morning awakening, symptoms that become more evident in the morning, and a loss of appetite. physical agitation, or a marked delay in development.
  • Psychotic: With hallucinations, delusions, and dissociation. It can also cause feelings of guilt and feeling of inadequacy.
  • Atypical: Sleepiness and weight gain, a greater appetite, fatigue with legs and arms feeling heavy, yet with significant brightness and mood improvement because of positive occasions.
  • Seasonal: Episodes happen in a similar sequence every throughout the year (seasonal affective disorder, also known as SAD, is an annual event that occurs in fall/winter)
  • Catatonic characteristics: Instability, rigidity stupor, and becoming silent or, sometimes, physical disturbance.

Depression is a mood disorder. It is more prevalent among women than males. Depression is a defined state that occurs following a particular event, such as the loss of a beloved one, or the end of a job, relationship, or financial situation.

Depression after birth is a common occurrence in mothers after childbirth. This is accompanied by the signs of depression mentioned above, and being unable to form bonds with their baby. The mild symptoms that last less than 2 weeks are known as babies blues as opposed to persistent, severe, and longer-lasting symptoms are referred to as a postpartum depression. There are also hallucinations or delusions ( postpartum psychosis).

The premenstrual dysphoric condition is a different depression disorder that women suffer from that manifests during the week prior to menstrual flow. It is characterized by symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as anger, mood swings, irritability as well as physical symptoms such as tenderness of the breast and bloating.


The name implies that with this disorder, the sufferer experiences manic and hypomanic episodes as well as depression (manic depression). Bipolar conditions are most prevalent in men.

The term Manic episodes are defined by features that last for at minimum a week, such as high self-esteem and grandeur, faster and more rapid speech thoughts and thoughts as well as high levels of energy and reduced need for sleep, the ability to be distracted and engaging in a variety of often reckless or unintentional activities. When these features are present at a lower degree in intensity (below the threshold of the mania) for at least four days or more, it’s classified as hypomanic episodes. hypomanic episode.

For Bipolar Type 1 is where there are periods of depression and mania depression, whereas, in Bipolar type 2, hypomania is present and clinical depression. Some exhibit rapid cycles that includes multiple (at minimum four) episodes of depression and mania throughout the year, and others exhibit multi-faceted episodes that rapidly alternate or intermixed mania and depressive episodes lasting at most one week.

Cyclothymia can be described as a less severe type of bipolar disorder, where it is characterized by multiple hypomanic as well as depression episodes in a two-year period, but does not reach the severity of either mania or clinical depression. However, these cases typically develop into bipolar 1, and 2 disorders.


Stress is an integral part of everyday life and may impact a person psychologically as well as physically. Stress-related episodes that are acute can occur throughout the day and can cause symptoms such as anxiety, irritation as well as palpitations, tension in the muscles, and feeling exhausted. A continuous stress pattern that extends over one month, creates ongoing stress. Long-term chronic stress increases the chance of developing disorders such as anxiety and depression and high BP and cardiovascular diseases weight gain, decreased immunity, and various other medical ailments. Stress can also be linked to an increase in alcohol consumption and other drug use. Stress management for chronic stress is an integral part of our modern lifestyle.

The psychological disorders discussed in this article are caused by an incident or a disturbing traumatizing experience that has caused extreme stress. These include:

Adjustment Disorder

It occurs following an event that is unsettling, such as losing a beloved one, a breakdown in a relationship (divorce or separation. ) or loss of employment and/or change in location or surroundings or location, financial loss, or illness. It typically begins within three months of the event, and it will subside in six months, after which a differential diagnosis may be considered.

It can be a sign of low moods of depression emotional instability, anxiety, irritability, difficulties in focus, sleep disturbances, and changes in appetite. Treatment includes family-social support, counseling, and reassurance. It is also a need for a short course of medication for depression and sleep.

An acute stress disorder

It is usually seen following an intense or life-threatening emotional-physical incident. It usually starts within two weeks and lasts between 3 and one months. The symptoms of the disorder include feeling numb, having dissociative amnesia (blocking out the memories of the traumatic incident) as well as depersonalization (disconnect from self) flashbacks (replaying/reliving the trauma), and hypervigilance and being easily startled. The symptoms are similar to PTSD and can be diagnosed when these symptoms persist longer than one month.

Psycho-Traumatic Stress Disorder

It is a mental disorder that is triggered by a traumatizing life-threatening or intense emotional-physical occasion. They could be a shootout, battles, explosions major accident-injury natural calamity, or rape/sexual assault. It involves being directly involved in these events or learning from the experience of a beloved one or as part of the duties of the police, army, (firemen or police officers army, firefighters, etc.

The symptoms usually start within two weeks, but it is possible to develop symptoms at a later time, as long as up to 6 months (delayed onset symptoms of PTSD). The symptoms should last for at least a month to qualify as PTSD. The symptoms of acute PTSD can last three months or more the following time and are then referred to as chronic PTSD. Complex PTSD can be identified by children or adults who have had multiple traumatic incidents, like neglect, violence, or abuse.

The following symptoms and features describe this condition:

  • Persistent thoughts and emotions of the incident as disturbing recurrent memories that trigger emotional and physiological stress such as nightmares, dissociative experience flashbacks, or nightmares.
  • Continuously avoided memories, thoughts events, situations, and conversations, as well as places and things that have to do with the incident or event.
  • Positive thoughts as well as misguided beliefs about the event, such as guilt, shame blame, fear, and anger, in addition to the inability of remembering significant aspects of the incident because of the blockage (dissociative amnesia) and inability to focus and disconnect from pleasure-seeking activities and social activities, as well as positive emotions.
  • Reactivity and arousal changes manifested as insomnia, hypervigilance, being constantly on guard, being easily scared, emotional anger outbursts and reckless destructive behavior, and trouble concentrating.

Anxiety and Related Disorders

Anxiety is the worry about the things that have not yet occurred or concerns that are still to be addressed. Every person experiences periods of anxiety, which can be intense. They could be triggered by certain events, situations, and situations in our lives. But, if anxiety becomes constant and becomes a problem with everyday routines, sleep, and social performance or affects physical health, it is recommended to speak with an expert. Depression and anxiety are often co-existing. Panic and anxiety can be accompanied by physical signs such as sweating, palpitations, breathlessness, and so on. which could be a sign of other ailments of the body.

The following disorders are acknowledged as anxiety-related disorders. The specific characteristics of each disorder are as follows:


It refers to the general and continuous anxieties that persist (for longer than and for a period of six months and more) and that the individual cannot control and causes impairment in social, personal, and professional functioning. The symptoms associated with this are:

  • difficult to concentrate
  • becoming tired quickly
  • irritability
  • feelings of agitation and feeling at the edge
  • Sleep disturbances (difficulty sleeping or falling asleep)
  • Muscle tension.

Other signs could include a flurry of thoughts, feeling anxious as well as palpitations, and shortness of breath. They can also experience dry or dry mouth and even dissociation daily. Other anxiety disorders and drug use should be eliminated when determining this diagnosis.

Sometimes, anxiety can be specific, as when you experience isolation anxiety (a severe fear of being away from family members) and also in anxiety disorders or anxiety, it may become severe that it manifests as anxiety.


A crisis is a moment of extreme anxiety and fear that the individual feels overwhelmed. It’s usually associated with physical symptoms like racing heartbeat, rapid breathing or feeling exhausted, chest pains and sweating, trembling, nausea, chills, sensation in the stomach dizziness, numbness, or feeling of tingling. A person experiences a sense of losing control, becoming insane, or anxiety about dying. It is possible to experience sensations of depersonalization or derealization (detachments from the world and oneself and self). The symptoms can peak within a short time and last between 10 and 30 minutes, and rarely for more than an hour.

If panic attacks occur frequently and are unavoidable, and are followed by the constant worry of suffering an attack of panic that causes a person to avoid certain behaviors and behaviors, then this is referred to as an anxiety disorder. The effects of panic disorders are significant for individuals’ social, psychological, and professional functioning. Other conditions, like phobias or PTSD as well as alcohol abuse, must be eliminated.


This is the extreme anxiety about a specific subject or circumstance. To qualify as an anxiety disorder, the fear must last for six months or more in a row, consistent and out of proportion. It should also be inexplicably affecting occupational and social functioning and cause a reluctance to engage in behaviors. Other psychological or physical issues, such as addiction to drugs are not a valid cause for a phobia.

Phobias are phobias that can be classified into a variety of categories.

  1. Social phobia (social anxiety disorder-SAD): Intense fear of socializing, eating, or speaking in public because of the fear of being humiliated embarrassing, shame, negative judgment, or rejection.
  2. Particular fears: Aversion to heights (acrophobia) Water-specific animals/insects, flying or in narrow and closed spaces (claustrophobia) blood injections, etc.
  3. Agoraphobia: It’s an aversion to public spaces like public transport, parking spaces, markets, streets or cinema halls, waiting in queues, or simply being away from home. They see these locations as difficult to get out of or risk being in embarrassing or embarrassing situations.

The mental health issues listed below are now taken out of an anxiety-related category, and classified in a separate manner. But anxiety is still the primary cause of these disorders.


OCD is defined by repeated or persistent thoughts, desires, and behaviors. The obsession component is disturbing thoughts, images, and desires, which cause extreme anxiety and depression and are uncontrollable or controlled. The compulsion aspect is routine actions and behaviors which are thought to squelch or diminish the intensity of the obsession.

To qualify as OCD, the compulsions or obsessions must be present for at least one hour during the day, persist for at least six months, and have a negative impact on the quality of life, and social and professional functioning. Other mental and physical ailments and addictions to substances should be eliminated.

Common signs of OCD are based on the notion of hygiene, clutter, and security. the demands include cleaning hands, washing hands and checking locks, ordering arrangements, and counting. OCD is caused by superstitious thoughts and the feeling that something negative might happen or that damage could occur if rituals/symbols/chants. are not carried out it is known as OCD with magical thinking.

Other conditions that are classified under OCD related disorders include:

  • Disorder of the body: Obsession of perceived or imagined imperfections in the body, that can cause compulsions such as looking in the mirror, changing clothes grooming and mental comparisons to others and others, etc.
  • Trichotillomania: The obsession with scalp and body hair, resulting in tension increases that are followed by the compulsion of pulling hair out (commonly from the eyebrows, scalp, and even the arms).
  • Disorder of excoriation: Obsessions with skin diseases and hygiene, resulting in the need to pick your skin.
  • Hoarding disorder: A strong emotional attachment to possessions and the pressure to not be able to eliminate the items, arrange them, or get rid of them with them, which can lead to an overbearing and distracting clutter.


These are the result of eating habits that result from the intense fear of weight gain or appearing overweight. The problem is the way that body shape is perceived, with excessive importance placed on the weight of your body in self-evaluation as well as self-esteem. These issues are thought to be caused by issues with the satiety and appetite centers of the hypothalamus within the brain. Disorders of eating are more prevalent among women.

anorexia Nervosa: A patient is weighing less than that normal and appears thin, or obese. There is a severe avoidance or limitation (restricting kind) of food items, or the person might eat a lot in the process of throwing food away (binge eating-purging kind) or induce vomiting, or by using laxatives or enemas. Other signs include a close-up control of calories and intake eating slowly breaking food into small pieces eating only in private or putting food away.

Bulimia Nervosa: A person is normal in size (sometimes mildly overweight). It is characterized by disproportionally high or uncontrollable and excessive eating for a specified time (of 2 hours). Then, there is a compensatory behavior of not eating the food, which can cause vomiting, taking laxatives or diuretics or enemas, intense exercise, or a time of fasting. These episodes must occur at least once per week for three months in order to be considered to be bulimia-nervosa.

Bulimia nervosa is different from the binge eating-purging kind of anorexia in two ways: the person is of normal weight or slightly overweight in bulimia compared to being overweight in anorexia and in bulimia, the individual is usually preoccupied with guilt and shame and in anorexia, the sufferer is usually astonished by the concern and the attributed to the illness by those around them.

Bulimia and type anorexia can cause puffy cheeks, injuries to the throat and fingers mouth ulcers, and dental decay as a result of vomiting. As with bulimia and anorexia, anorexia could cause serious health issues such as deficiency in vitamins and nutrition and weakness, dizziness and low blood pressure heart failure and heart rhythm disorders hormonal imbalances causing the absence of menstrual flow or irregularity, pregnant women at high risk losing hair weak bones, swollen joints constipation, anemia skin conditions, kidney disease as well as dehydration and emotional agitation, mental slowness or depression.

Binge eating disorder: It is a term used to describe eating like bulimia, but without compensatory behavior. Other symptoms include eating in the absence of real hunger, eating in a hurry to the point of being uncomfortable eating in solitude, feeling of guilt, displeasure, depression, guilt, and shame. The eating episodes must occur at least every week for three months.

Other: Food-related disorders can be described as an avoidant-restrictive eating disorder (extremely selective and picky consumption), pica (craving and eating non-nutritious or non-edible food items like paper, mud, etc. ) as well as chewing (repeated eating and chewing food taken from the stomach). These conditions are more prevalent among children.


“Soma” is a reference to the body. The symptoms of this group could be caused by anxiety that has been transferred from psychological to physical perception to help cope mentally. To classify it as a physical disease or related disorder the signs and symptoms should be present for a minimum of at least 6 months. It is essential to perform an exhaustive medical examination as well as laboratory tests to rule out an actual physical illness.

When it comes to somatic symptom disorders the person affected experiences bodily manifestations or physical issues that can cause extreme psychological stress and impairment. Although the medical examiner might not be able to identify physical signs of disease, patients with somatic symptom disorders truly believe in the symptoms and are not lying or trying to trick.

People who suffer from these conditions experience some physical signs that they find to be distressing and disruptive in their daily lives. They experience a lot of anxiety, and often constant thoughts about the severity of the symptoms, and dedicate a lot of amount of time, energy, and effort to these. As we said, it is crucial to rule out physical condition with the aid of a medical exam and lab tests before making a diagnosis.

Other disorders in this group include anxiety about illness (hypochondriasis) which is the anxiety and worry of getting sick or developing a disease. The patient is not suffering from any symptoms or regular mild symptoms. These people might have to perform a series of tests and checks for different body parameters, or in contrast, they entirely avoid testing and doctor appointments.

A specific disorder is known as transformation disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) makes the person notice neurological signs (like having difficulty hearing or seeing, feeling trapped in limbs or limbs, tremors, seizures, seizures, loss of consciousness, etc.). But, it is not any neurological disorder underlying it and neither is the manifestation pattern indicative of any neurological condition.

In the context of factitious disorders, it is a case of fraud and deceitful use of psychological or physical symptoms to make one appear sick or injured. It is distinct from malingering because falsification can be done in the absence of any external reward or gain. A rare condition is Munchausen’s Syndrome by in proxy ( factitious disorder imposed on another) in which the patient attempts to portray someone in their care as an elderly or child sick. To do this, they could additionally cause symptoms, such as not eating food or providing specific foods or emetics to cause vomiting, or using laxatives to cause diarrhea, and then adding blood to the stools or urine and heating thermometers and eventually, requiring hospitalization. This is a hazardous situation for those taking care of the patient.

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