ACNE What is the reason and how does It occur?
The primary skin cells that compose an outer skin layer surface ( epidermis) are known as Keratinocytes because they produce the protein known as keratin that forms the outer protective layer of the skin. The epidermis also houses cells known as melanocytes that contain melanin pigments and give the skin its distinctive shade.
The skin has hair follicles within the dermis (the middle layer of the skin) from where hair (also called pilus plural-pili) develops and then emerges from the pores of the skin’s surface. The hair follicles get nourished by fats and oils (called sebum) from the attached sebaceous glands. So, each hair follicle, as well as the sebaceous glands together are referred to as a Sebaceous Unit (PSU).
The development of Acne
Increased multiplication and accumulation of the keratinocytes lining the hair follicles (called follicular hyper-keratinization), and increased production of sebum from the sebaceous glands (called hyper-seborrhea), can cause the pores of the follicles to get blocked. This causes the appearance of acne (also known as acne vulgaris).
The primary reason for this is a rise of androgen hormones in puberty. That’s why acne is generally thought of as a teenage-related disorder. But hormonal imbalances can happen later in life as well. It is often seen during specific periods of the menstrual cycle or pregnancy, as well as in diseases such as Poly Cystic Ovarian Disease/Syndrome (PCOD/PCOS).
Other risk factors and contributory factors are the presence of certain ingredients in skin care products or cosmetics levels and dietary issues. Acne typically occurs around the eyes (cheeks as well as the forehead) however it can also appear on the upper back, chest, and shoulder.
Stages and manifestations of Acne
If the pore of the PSU is blocked, it’s called comedo or a comedo or a comedone and is thought to have reached that un inflammatory stage. Comedones are the most prominent symptom of Acne vulgaris and may appear in black (open comedo or blackhead) or white (closed comedo whitehead – whitehead: when it is covered by keratin, a substance found in the skin). In the hair follicle, there are bacteria called P acnes that are not normally active since they are unable to grow and flourish in the absence of oxygen ( anaerobic bacteria).
After the pore has been closed The bacteria begin expanding and thrive on more fats and oils present. This leads to inflammation and infection within the PSU. It is an inflammatory phase of acne. It is manifested as zits or pimples that could be papules(red or slightly raised), pustules (filled with pus), or larger cysts and nodules (filled with cheesy substance and fluid).
Treatment and Health Solutions to manage ACNE
Acne is an issue mainly because of aesthetic reasons (especially among teenagers and couples). It is caused by pimples and the scars caused by inflammation, especially with cysts and nodules. Acne may also have a psychological effect that calls for counseling and addressing the underlying anxiety and depression.
Controlling acne must be achieved through an amalgamation of lifestyle modifications along with appropriate medication as well as when needed treatments for the skin. Acne sufferers or those with sensitive skin must take care of their diet as well as physical activity, stress, and, most importantly, what skincare products they utilize. It is equally important to pick the appropriate cleanser for your face.
(Read Important points of the care of those with skin problems that cause acne.).
The acne medications work by different mechanisms, as illustrated. They can be applied to the skin (as gels and creams applied to the skin affected) as well as orally administered tablets.
Within the topical medication category, retinoids (like adapalene or the tretinoin), antibiotics (anti-bacterial agents such as clindamycin, nadifloxacin azithromycin, the erythromycin), and B benzoyl peroxide (BPO) are the most commonly used in combination or in combination.
Some of these drugs may cause severe drying and irritation to the skin. To combat this, certain products like retinoids are recommended for use at night only, and at first as a short contact therapy. The ‘ Nano or micro formulas can also be found to provide better effectiveness and tolerance. nano-therapeutics is now being developed globally as a method that is effective.
Other medications that are applied to the face for acne include zinc salts, niacinamide dapsone, azelaic acids, and herbs like the aloe plant. Topical agents such as G and glycolic acid or salicylic acid are often used in acne face washes and peels.
For acne, oral medications comprise antibiotics (like azithromycin, doxycycline minocycline, azithromycin) and oral retinoids ( isotretinoin), and oral contraceptives. Of the oral antibiotics, only azithromycin is able to be employed during pregnancy. Certain antibiotics are offered as reduced dosage extended-release (ER) formulations to enhance their effectiveness and minimize the risk of adverse reactions.
Therapy with pulses or intervals could also be used to minimize the effects of side negative effects. Isotretinoin may cause a variety of adverse effects, including extreme dryness of the eyes, lips, and skin, as well as insomnia, back/joint discomforts, and psychological side effects. Isotretinoin can also cause abnormalities in the fetus. Hence, it is important to rule out pregnancy before taking it, and strict contraception must be observed while taking Isotretinoin.
Oral contraceptives are utilized by women because of the suppressive effects of estrogen hormone on androgens as well as sebum production. All acne medications are to be used only with the supervision of a doctor, with prescriptions and supervision.
Skin peels as well as laser therapy and skin polishing are all available and carried out by skilled Dermatologists to treat acne that is resistant to medication and related scarring.
Acne vulgaris versus Acne rosacea
The term “acne” that is typically used in the whole discussion above is referring to the term ‘acne Vulgaris. Another disorder, acne rosacea(or simply Rosacea) is observed most often in middle-aged women (especially those who have fair, light skin). It is characterized by redness on the nose and cheeks because of the swelling and the prominence of small blood vessels within the area. It is also caused by pimples, just as with acne vulgaris. The triggers are spicy or hot drinks, food smoking extreme temperatures, winds and emotional stress, as well as intense physical exercise, and certain drugs/cosmetics. Rosacea is managed by avoiding triggers that are known to cause it and using medications to lessen the appearance of redness (like brimonidine, oxymetazoline) and anti-parasitic drugs (like metronidazole, ivermectin) as well as anti-acne medicines such as isotretinoin, doxycycline and others, and antihistamines, or aspirin for flushing and itching symptoms. Sometimes, laser therapy can be used.
Folliculitis, Furuncles (Boils), and Carbuncles
These are terms used to describe the disease and swelling of hair follicles which can be seen at any time. The bacterium responsible for the cause is usually Staph aureus. The most frequent causes causing this are poor hygiene, tight clothing and moisture-related heat, injuries or cuts, and occasionally an underlying immune disorder or inadequate nutrition. Folliculitis is an infection of hair follicles that is restricted to the outermost layers of the surface of the skin (epidermis). It is a furuncle that indicates a deeper infection within the dermis. They appear as bumps filled with pus (boils) and, therefore, are often confused with pimples. However, they are painful when touched and can be distinguished from acne. Furuncles may join to make a bigger one called a carbuncle. The skin infections that are caused by bacteria are treated with anti-bacterial creams for the skin (like mupirocin, fusidic acid, framycetin, and Neosporin) and, sometimes, oral antibiotics in the case of larger, more serious infections.